Rhetorical Figures

Anadiplosis Repeating the terminal word in a clause as the start of the next one:
Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,
Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain
(Sidney A and S 1)

Anaphora Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses:
Past reason hunted; and no sooner had,
Past reason hated, as a swallowed bait
(Shakespeare 129)

Chiasmus A pattern of x-shaped syntactic structure (like the Greek letter chi):
By reason good, good reason her to love. (Sidney A & S 10)

Zeugma (Gk. "yoking") A single instance of a verb controls several successive words or clauses, each with a different meaning / effect:
I on my horse, and Love on me, doth try
Our horsemanships . . .
(Sidney A and S 49)
Thou bear'st the arrow, I the arrow-head (Sidney A and S 65.

Apostrophe A direct address either to an absent person, or to an abstract or inanimate entity; when it is to a god or muse it is an Invocation.
Come sleep! O sleep the certain knot of peace (Sidney A and S 39)

Prosopopoeia Personification; having an imaginary or absent person represented as if she were speaking or acting.

Anaclasis Homonymic pun:
My forces razed, thy banners raised within (A and S 36)

Paronomasia Punning; but unlike Anaclasis the words are only similar, not identical in sound: (Shakespeare Henry IV Falstaff to Prince Hal I ii):
Were it not here apparent that thou art heir apparent

Auxesis (Gk. "Increase, amplification:) Words or clauses in climactic / superlative order; opposite of Meiosis.
I may, I must, I can, I will, I do
Leave following that which it is gain to miss
(Sidney A and S 47)

Isocolon (Gk. "of equal members or clauses.") A repetition of phrases of the same length; usually with the same structure.

Metaphor and Simile Both compare one thing to another. Simile uses "like" or "as" in a direct comparison, while Metaphor identifies one thing with another, in a non-literal use of a word or attribution. Burns'
O my love is like a red, red rose
That's newly sprung in June

is a Simile. Had he written My love, thou art a red, red rose . . . that would be a Metaphor.

In Metaphor the subject (the individual under discussion; the unfamiliar object) is the Tenor; in the previous example the Tenor is Burns' lady-love; the Vehicle (the object someone / something is compared to; the object, the familiar) is the rose.

Metonmy When a vehicle is so closely associated with the tenor, that the tenor may be omitted. Pen stands for writing, the Crown for the King, a Sword for warfare.

Synecdoche The part stands for the whole:
All hands on deck.