Anadiplosis Repeating the terminal word in a clause as the start of the next one:
Anaphora Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses:
Chiasmus A pattern of x-shaped syntactic structure (like the Greek letter chi):
Zeugma (Gk. "yoking") A single instance of a verb controls several successive words or clauses, each with a different meaning / effect:
Apostrophe A direct address either to an absent person, or to an abstract or inanimate entity; when it is to a god or muse it is an Invocation.
Prosopopoeia Personification; having an imaginary or absent person represented as if she were speaking or acting.
Anaclasis Homonymic pun:
Paronomasia Punning; but unlike Anaclasis the words are only similar, not identical in sound: (Shakespeare Henry IV Falstaff to Prince Hal I ii):
Auxesis (Gk. "Increase, amplification:) Words or clauses in climactic / superlative order; opposite of Meiosis.
Isocolon (Gk. "of equal members or clauses.") A repetition of phrases of the same length; usually with the same structure.
Metaphor and Simile Both compare one thing to another. Simile uses "like" or "as" in a direct comparison, while Metaphor identifies one thing with another, in a non-literal use of a word or attribution. Burns'
In Metaphor the subject (the individual under discussion; the unfamiliar object) is the Tenor; in the previous example the Tenor is Burns' lady-love; the Vehicle (the object someone / something is compared to; the object, the familiar) is the rose.
Metonmy When a vehicle is so closely associated with the tenor, that the tenor may be omitted. Pen stands for writing, the Crown for the King, a Sword for warfare.
Synecdoche The part stands for the whole: